The Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) is Spain’s largest public research institution, and ranks third among Europe’s largest research organization. CSIC is attached to the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities and has more than 10000 employees, including nearly 4000 researchers, working in 120 Institutes covering different areas of Science and Technology. CSIC has 4 main missions: To foster multidisciplinary scientific and technological research; knowledge transfer to industry and society; education and training of scientific and technical staff; creation of Technology Based Companies.

CSIC has a large experience in the field of CO2 capture and Calcium Looping systems through the CO2 Capture Group of the INCAR institute. This group, led by Prof Carlos Abanades, is a world leading group in the development and demonstration of Calcium Looping technologies in terms of publication impact and project ambition. This grout has participated in numerous European projects (C4U, FlexiCaL (as Coordinator), Cleanker, Cemcap, ASCENT, CaO2, ReCaL, CaOling) in the last years and published more than 150 scientific papers in the field, including some of the most cited in the area of CO2 capture.



The University of Stuttgart is one of the leading nine technical universities in Germany (TU9), with highly ranked programs in civil, mechanical, industrial and electrical engineering. Around 24500 students are enrolled in courses offered by 95 degree programs. USTUTT has 5300 employees among them 265 professors in over 150 institutes, 10 faculties and in central institutions. Research at USTUTT is strengthened through interdisciplinary cooperation with other research institutions and industry.

The Institute of Combustion and Power Plant Technology (IFK) at USTUTT has gained expertise in energy research for more than 50 years and thus, holds considerable experience concerning the thermal utilisation of gaseous, liquid and solid fuels and the reduction of emissions of such processes. USTUTT-IFK is and was acting as coordinator or partner in major European R&D and demo-projects concerning Calcium Looping CO2 capture, Fluidized Bed Combustion, Lime Enhanced Gasification (LEGS) and Sorption Enhanced Reforming (SER) and zero-emission coal processes, e.g. FLEXICAL, FLEDGED, CAOLING, CALMOD, RECAL, CEMCAP, CLEANKER, C3 Capture, CATS, AER-GAS I/II, C2H, etc.



Politecnico di Milano is a public technical university established in 1863, nowadays organised in 12 departments and a network of 6 Schools of Engineering, Architecture and Industrial Design, being one the largest Engineering School in Italy. The research activity pursued at the Department of Energy spans a wide range of thermo-fluid-dynamic and chemical processes required to convert primary energy sources (including fossil, renewable and wastes) into useful forms of energy (electricity, heat, synthetic fuels) in stationary and mobile plants. The support to this project will be provided mainly by the Group of Energy Conversion Systems (GECOS) which is led by 7 Full Professors and counts 6 Associate Professors, 9 Assistant Professors and more than 20 Ph.D. students and researchers. In recent years the GECOS group published more than 700 scientific papers and participated in 18 EU funded projects and several industrial projects on energy systems. ​



The CARMEUSE Group (about 4000 employees) is a leading global producer of lime, with 150 years of experience in the extraction and processing of high calcium limestone and dolomite into lime and lime-related products for industrial and commercial customers (steel production, masonry, mortars and building materials, road construction, glass production, agro-food, paper, chemicals, plastics, carpets, paints, pollution and gas control, water treatment, etc.).Headquartered in Luxemburg, CARMEUSE presently conducts operations and/or offices in more than 90 locations situated across Europe, Turkey, North and South America, Middle East & Asia and Africa.

CARMEUSE Research and Technology (CARMEUSE R&T) is the Research and Development Centre of CARMEUSE Group. The R&T Department of CARMEUSE plays an active role in the development of the product functionalities as well as in the control of the production process and related equipment.



Hulleras del Norte, S.A (HUNOSA) is a public owned company whose main activity has been for many decades the mining of coal. Most relevant for this project is its new  Energy Services, that operates a 150MWt CFB Power Plant in La Pereda, Spain and has set up a team of Engineers and Economist to diversify business opportunities and exploit internal resources and know how in the energy sector.  At present, the diversification of industrial activities and markets is a top priority for HUNOSA. HUNOSA has become very active in new energy developments in the Asturian region of Spain. In line with this, the future trends of HUNOSA are routed by different projects in line with Energy Transition Policies set up by the Spanish Government. The company has carried out along the years multiple research projects in different CCUS fields. Among these projects (CaOling, ReCaL, CaO2 and FlexiCaL), it must be highlighted those related the 1.7 MWth Pilot Plant for CO2 capture by Calcium Looping, based on two circulating fluidized bed reactors. As a Spanish Utility operating in an electricity market with an increasing share of renewables, HUNOSA is seeking for solutions to improve the flexibility of its power plant and the BackCap concept may represent a key opportunity for this purpose.

This project has received funding from the European Union’s Research Fund for Coal and Steel (RFCS) Under grant agreement No 101034000

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Dr. Borja Arias
CO2 Capture group, Carbon Science and Technology Institute (INCAR – CSIC)
C/ Francisco Pintado Fe, 26, 33011 OVIEDO, Spain